Historia wychowania: a review of Åukasz Kurdybacha's second volume
Historia wychowania (History of Education) is a classic work by Åukasz Kurdybacha, a Polish historian and pedagogue. The second volume of this book covers the period from the Renaissance to the end of the 18th century, and presents a comprehensive overview of the educational ideas and practices in Europe and Poland.
Kurdybacha examines the influence of humanism, reformation, counter-reformation, absolutism, enlightenment and nationalism on the development of education. He also analyzes the contributions of various educators, such as Erasmus, Comenius, Rousseau, Pestalozzi and others. He pays special attention to the role of the Polish Commission of National Education, the first ministry of education in the world, established in 1773.
The book is rich in sources and references, and provides a detailed bibliography for further reading. It is written in a clear and engaging style, and offers a balanced and critical perspective on the history of education. It is a valuable resource for students and scholars of pedagogy, history and culture.
The 19th century also witnessed significant changes in the methods and institutions of teacher education. The influence of Pestalozzi and Froebel led to the establishment of the first kindergarten in 1837 and the spread of early childhood education. The ideas of Herbart and his followers inspired a systematic approach to curriculum design and classroom instruction, based on the five formal steps of teaching. The development of psychology and sociology as distinct disciplines provided new insights into the nature and needs of learners, as well as the social and cultural contexts of education.
Teacher education also became more organized and professionalized, as various types of schools and colleges emerged to prepare teachers for different levels and sectors of education. Normal schools, which originated in France in the late 17th century, became widespread in Europe and America as institutions that trained primary school teachers according to a standardized curriculum and model lessons. Secondary school teachers were usually educated at universities or specialized academies, where they studied both academic subjects and pedagogical principles. Teachers for vocational and technical education were prepared at specialized institutes or colleges that combined theoretical and practical training.
The 19th century also saw the rise of various movements and associations that aimed to improve the status and quality of teachers, such as teacher unions, professional journals, conferences, and societies. Teachers began to assert their rights and interests as a distinct occupational group, as well as their responsibilities and duties as educators of the public. They also sought to advance their knowledge and skills through continuing education and research.
The 20th century also brought about major changes in the aims, content, and methods of education. The social and political upheavals of the two World Wars, the rise and fall of totalitarian regimes, the emergence of new nations and global challenges, and the increasing awareness of human rights and social justice all influenced the goals and values of education. Education was seen not only as a means of personal development and social mobility, but also as a tool for democracy, peace, and international understanding. The curriculum expanded to include new subjects, such as physical education, art, music, foreign languages, and civics, as well as new perspectives, such as multiculturalism, environmentalism, and gender equality. The methods of teaching and learning also underwent significant changes, as new theories and research in psychology, sociology, and pedagogy challenged the traditional views of the teacher's role and authority, the learner's abilities and interests, and the nature of knowledge and learning. Progressive educators advocated child-centred, activity-based, cooperative, and experiential approaches that aimed to foster creativity, critical thinking, self-expression, and social skills. New technologies, such as radio, television, computers, and the Internet, also opened up new possibilities and challenges for education. a474f39169